World History





World History

Part 1

John Calvin was a pastor, a French theologian, and a reformer. Calvin was a principle figure in the development of Christian theology system. The aspects of the system included predestination doctrines and aspects of the absolute sovereignty of God when it comes to saving a human soul from death. Reformers across the world look to Calvin as the expositor of their beliefs.

St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre refers to the massacre of French Protestants in Paris. The Massacre occurred in 1572. Catherine de Médicis plotted the massacre and Roman Catholic nobles carried it out. The incident is marked as one of the series of civil wars that occurred between French Protestants and Roman Catholics in late 16th century.

The Columbian Exchange is the period of biological and cultural exchanges between Europe and America. Animals, technology, diseases, and plants were exchanged. The activity changed the life of Native America and Europe.  The Columbian exchange was important as it led to warfare evolution, advancement in education and agriculture, and increased mortality rate in both region.

Zheng He was a Chinese diplomat, admiral, and explorer. He commanded expeditionary voyages to East Africa, South Asia, SouthEast and Western Asia between 1405 and 1433. Zheng He attended major expeditions with a purpose of exploring the world for the Chinese emperor and to create Chinese trade in new areas.

Suleyman ″the Magnificent″ was widely respected as the sultan of Ottoman Empire. He is important as he led the empire through the golden age by reforming and expanding the legal system. The sultan spent a quarter of his leadership time in leading troops in the battle. He built one of the most known powerful Navy in the Ottoman Empire history. He gained loyalty from many people as he was known for treating even the enemies with dignity and honour.

Part 2

The protestant reformation reshaped Europe. The reformation was a theological revolt against total control and abuses of the Roman Catholic Church in Europe. Martin Luther initiated the schism in western Christianity. Other protestant reformers such as John Calvin in France and Zwingli in Switzerland continued with the reformation in the 16th century.

Reformers like John Wycliffe, Peter Waldo, and Jan Hus had attempted to reform the church before 1517. Erasmus of Rotterdam was also the main proponent of liberal catholic who attacked some practices of the church. The reformers reveal that the thirst to renew Christianity developed long before King. However, Martin Luther’s publication of the Ninety-Five Thesis in 1517 is considered the beginning point of the reformation.

Reformers believed that the Roman Catholic Church believed in some false teachings. It is this view that Martin Luther sought to challenge pope’s authority especially in indulgences selling. Instead of the church trying to reform, it tried to silence reformers. This led to the formation of Protestants divisions including the Lutheran church, Reformed church, Presbyterian Church, and the Anglican Church.

The reformation led to a religious war, which climaxed in the Thirty Years’ War that occurred between 1618 and 1648. More than 40% of the German population was killed during the war. The Habsburg dynasty which included Habsburg Catholic House and supporters from France, Sweden, and Denmark fought against Protestants in Germany. It is until when Catholic France joined Protestant states against the Habsburg dynasty that the war ended through the Peace of Westphalia.

The Reformation brought in various changes in religion, human capital, economic development, and in governance. The new political and religious freedom came at a great cost in Europe of wars, bloody persecutions, and rebellions. The positive effects are seen in the cultural and intellectual flourishing the reformation inspired in the schism, freedom of religion, and political freedom in Europe.