Racial Discrimination against Black Athletes and its Effect in the American Society
Racial discrimination against black athletes and its effect in the American society
Acts of racial discrimination against blacks living in America originate from 1619 when there were practices of enslaving Black Africans on US soil to gain economic advantage. The slavery incidences became the roots of stratified society socially where whites treat blacks as inferior to them. Since then, blacks in American society have faced negative experiences in social institutions such as sports, art, and music. Acts of racial discrimination disadvantages a specific racial group. Blacks living in America face different types of discrimination despite laws and policies set against it in the country. Minority communities especially blacks experience subtle and intentional discrimination, statistical profiling, and discrimination embedded in culture (Cooper, 2012). Many people involved in discrimination against the minority groups feel threatened by the communities.
African-American athletes explain that racism manifests itself largely in the United States and includes denial of access to leadership opportunities, and hindrance from making decisions in professional sport. Athletes receive different treatment from their white counterparts. The results have negative implications for academic support personnel, coaches, and administrators in colleges and Universities in America. Wealthy Black-Americans do not have freedom worth it because of their color as it is assumed in America. There is a negative assumption lying under wealth and success among the blacks, because wealthy black Americans attract oppression and inequality (Word press, 2018). The paper gives answers to questions on the extent of racial discrimination among black athletes in American society, and how media responses as well as remarks by leaders, support or minimize the oppression. The topic benefits black athletes living in America and the society. It creates awareness on various forms of discrimination among ethnic minority groups especially blacks in America.
The topic touches American society, the leaders, and their position in minimizing racial discrimination among athletes. Leaders are better positioned to end racial discrimination in the country and thus the better group to focus on handling the topic of racial discrimination in America. The paper will use qualitative method to analyze media forums on black athletes as discussed by present American president Donald Trump. A qualitative textual analysis will enhance conduct of the research because it will help describe and interpreted messages given by leaders through analyzing their speeches. The opinion of black athletes on various remarks on media will be measured through responses given. Any form of discrimination directed to black athletes and is considered illegal by the human rights constitution will be coded to present discrimination acts. Analyses of various media forums will provide relevant information to help answering research questions.
Racism has become a major topic of discussion during the 2018 Pyeongchang Winter Olympics because of the uptick experienced among black athletes in the games. There has been greater inclusion and diversity, which opens the door to critic against race. The opening if the 2018 winter Olympic games was followed by absence of Davis a black athlete who became the first in wining gold in 2006 winter Olympics during the Turin games. Davis boycotted the festivals indicating that Team USA showed great dishonor towards black athletes by choosing a white, Erin Hamlin, belonging to the group of the luge woman veteran, to carry the flag during the ceremony (Word press, 2018). Davis was frustrated because there was a 4-4 tie between Hamlin and Davis, which would contribute to tossing a coin to decide who will bear the flag. In addition, Davis frustration was related to race, which caused a protest of more than 10 Black American athletes during Winter Olympics.
The black athletes face great examination in white institutions connected to their race, which contributes to discrimination, oppression, and limited increasing mobility among blacks. The state and federal laws advocate for racism belief and continues to manifest through social norms and practices. Sporting activities involve the society as a whole, thus reinforcing social inequalities, and dominating power structures in the society. Participation of blacks in American sports has remained under great contest because it displays the state of black Americans in the U.S society. Black athletes have frequently been excluded from intercollegiate sports in Predominantly White Institutions (PWIs), political arenas, businesses, and education forums. PWIs failed to integrate black athletes the twentieth century (Cooper, 2012). Few black athletes such as Jesse Owens, Jackie Robinson, and Paul Robeson received admission in the institution because of their talented abilities. Black athletes have received unwelcoming environments, which applaud their prowess in athletic contributing to their view as socially and intellectually inferior. Black athletes face racism attempts, which is discrimination against them because of their color. The discrimination against race contributes to negative outcomes such as limiting their opportunities in education, lowering their mobility in career, experiencing poor outcomes in health, and resulting in increased rates of incarceration.
Overview of the paper
The paper begins with introducing racial discrimination among blacks living in America and the roots of the practice. The major focus of the paper is on black athletes in public institutions. It continues to give the significance of carrying out the research and those affected by the practice. The literature review is the second section, which offers a broad explanation of racial discrimination among black athletes, which is committed by the political leaders such as Donald Trump. The literature review gives an analysis of various media platforms used by Donald Trump to rebuke, irritate, and hurl insults on black athletes. The paper continues to obtain data from media sources used by leaders to discriminate upon the black athletes. The data is analyzed using qualitative contextual analysis method and the findings displayed in a table. The discussion of the findings follows with supporting information from broadcast and printed media. The conclusion and recommendation sections come last to finalize the topic and answer the research questions.
Racism among blacks has created a ground for justification while committing acts of discrimination, subordination, and injustice. Blacks have faced unique fatal experiences because they were subjected to slavery acts leading to their disadvantage. The blacks have been denied citizenship under US Constitution, and enslaved because of their skin color. The racial discrimination practices and negative attitudes have become prevalent in the U.S. theories of social Darwinism and racism support racism attempts. The theories conclude that whites were originally superior to blacks and thus justified for mistreatment and oppression. The blacks face social and political isolation. The contributing factors being their inability to own enough resources necessary to integrate fully in the US society. They lived in substandard houses in the rural and urban areas (Waldon, 2018). The blacks have remained segregated from whites because the whites controlled many resources and invested heavily in political life, education, and economic life. The increasing discrimination practices have extended to leaders who continue hurling insults to black athletes and publicly frustrating them in the media.
The current president of the United States, Donald Trump records various encounters with black athletes and his irritating remarks on them are evident. The media platforms such as Facebook, twitter, newspapers, and television broadcasts have revealed the presidents negative attitude towards black athletes. The literature review will analyses various media reports and speeches by Donald Trump and its effect in their lives and the society. President Donald Trump upholds and makes it known to the public that he is fighting with Black Athletes (Waldon, 2018).
The attack is a continuation of the long history of racial discrimination against the blacks living in America. Trump takes advantage of his position as a president and political leader to counter protest against black athletes. Nobody has the power to challenge the president, not the troops or voices from black people who speak against him. The president’s fight is directed to NFL players who resisted the move by failing to honor the national anthem by kneeling to display their protest against brutality from police and inequality attempts related to race. President Donald Trump attacks NFL player and other black athletes in America. Donald Trump demoralized a 12-year old boy, Preston Sharp after initiating a movement of placing more than 40,000 flags on top of veteran’s graves.
Donald Trump ignored the good actions and reminded Americans that all people should stand up when singing the national anthem. Trump continued to stress that Preston and others teach Americans about their civic duty including saluting the flag, placing hands on hearts when pledging allegiance and standing proudly for the national anthem. The last phrase was written in capital letters and its version distributed to all reporters for grinning. In the speech, Trump attacked black athletes kneeling while people recited the national anthem (Waldon, 2018). Example, Trump referred black athletes, as ‘son of a bitch’ because they protested before the game stressing they must be fired. The president specifically requested firing of ESPN anchor and Jemele Hill, a journalist after she named the president a ‘white supremacist’. The political leaders express racial discrimination against the black athletes such as denying them rental facilities, employment and various privileges. Discrimination takes the form of unconscious hostility of tone and posture. Various forms of discrimination have their basis on assumptions towards members of disadvantaged group. The blacks have reported facing verbal antagonism, physical attacks, segregation, and extermination from politicians.
Trump attacks black athletes using vulgar language when giving a public speech. Donald Trump treatment is unequal among athletes in United States which is expressed after Tom Brady a star in NFL club failed to attend to his championship team during a visit to the white House. The president kept quiet and ignored the action. However, the racism practice by Donald Trump was observed when Curry a black player announced that he would behave in a similar manner to Brady. The president declined the invitation of the team to the statehouse calling him out on twitter. The president showed his anger by demanding that players displaying their protest must be fired. The president openly criticized Curry because of color differences. Trump’s attack on black players is observed openly when Trump hesitates to criticize other white Protestants (National Academy of sciences, 2018). The president uses Verbal antagonism such as racial slurs, hurtful comments about their race, hostility, and antagonism. Most blacks have had experiences of hostile environments created by their white colleagues at work places. Other forms include non-verbal communications of employers who dislike black employees in the interview room.
The harsh and unlawful verbal and nonverbal communications have increased discriminatory practices in America. In most cases the blacks have been avoided in public places, mistreated, eliminated, and pointed at as evil doers because of their colored skin. Most blacks experience isolation because of their race. Various businesses, firms, and government institutions exclude blacks from their premises and fair opportunity to enjoy what other whites are enjoying in the same location. Explicit and intentional forms of discrimination exist among whites who fail to support applicable civil rights of racial groups in all measures (National Academy of sciences, 2018). Various blacks have encountered physical attacks frequently as a way of segregating them.
They remain hated as well as explicit prejudice because there are viewed as threats to the economic stand and values of the majority group. The worst comes when minority groups face mass killings and extermination because of their ethnic background.Trump is among leaders who humiliate black athletes even when they deserve appreciation. The president stresses that black athletes should be locked up during the national anthem because they are not grateful of being allowed to play in a country that has enormous wealth created by American ancestors. According to Trump, black athletes must appreciate the fact that the nation’s wealthy ancestors give them a chance to rise to the top. Trump assumes that they take up the wealth of their older relatives. Trump applies discriminatory policies in housing for black athletes.
Rothstein (2018) argues that segregation in America has become a tradition and concentrates in major cities. Segregation among the blacks has continuously affected the housing department and the government policies at the federal, local, and state levels. Owners of real estate agents have manifested their denial to follow the law set by the government. There exist violations sanctioned by the state towards African-Americans because they ignored practices of discrimination in the country, but were observed promoting them. The effects of discrimination have negatively affected black athletes since they were not allowed to live in their desired environments, and educate their children in the best schools. The fair housing Act of 1968-offered enforcement that prevent discrimination in the future. It banned the treatment of former slaves like citizens of the second class. Rothstein (2018) identifies that the government and courts support policies on racism through maintaining black and white separation. The color of law is an American story discussing the large, small, and medium municipalities. Black athletes are forced to concentrate on segregated neighborhoods. The president denies black athletes the right to protest and explains they must be denied employment if they work on Sundays.
Trump oppresses black athletes in all ways because he declines guiding the police department looking to reduce acts of discrimination and preventing use of excess force to the blacks. According to Walsh (2017), President Donald Trump takes an unusual approach to athletes in the nation because he mocks, quarrels and questions them on their patriotic stand. As people expect that the president support national teams, Trump is the opposite of world expectations. People expect that he associates with young people participating in sports and supports them morally and financially. Donald Trump posts annoying remarks on twitter that American citizens are fed up with incidences of disrespect shown by the National Football League and athletes using the field. The president appears hypocritical towards black athletes because he only forms friendships when he desires taking their luster. Black athletes such as Jackie Robinson, LeBron James, and Muhammand Ali have faced injustice. Donald Trump has attacked minority communities without considering their feelings. Donald Trump disagrees on civil rights of black athletes such as Stephen Curry.
Black athletes are associated with poverty, wealth disparities, lacking proper healthcare and education. The racial discrimination existing has its basis on differences in culture, color and body shape because they come from different ethnic backgrounds. Trumps approach to black athletes is inhuman and comes from a belief that black Americans cannot be civilized and that they are inferior morally, intellectually and socially. Racism practices have their bases on beliefs that there are differences among colored and white skinned people. Racism involves combination of feelings and evaluations of one group towards the other and reflects varied treatment of persons in institutions and the justification that they perpetuate discrimination. The idea of racism develops as one grows and is bound on culture. The practice of discrimination among black athletes began as early as 1947 where Jackie Robinson faced various obstacles in sports. Thus, athletes began facing varied types of aggressions from 1970s, which is continuing today. They face insults verbal, on verbal and visual forms because of their colored skin. Others receive micro aggressions in brief form of daily exchanges of hurting messages sometimes from white people. Most whites in the midst of blacks are ignored, disrespected, and treated as less intelligent. According to Carvalho (2014), American citizens do not view the blacks as privileged and deserving favor in the society. The black athletes receive a negative approach from their white counterparts. The white broadcasters and those writing on sports favor white athletes and discriminate upon black athletes. The sports media dismisses black athletes claiming they over rely on having natural gifts. However, it enhances images of white athletes referring them as ‘smart, team plyers and hardworking’. The black athletes face insults such as beasts, freaks and termed as people getting natural gifts opposed to ethics in their working.
The blacks stereotyping is common because they are referred as lazy. Black athletes receive more criticism for conducting bad plays while white players get extra praises for their good plays. The network’s television covers black athletes and their physical qualities, while white athletes are associated with intellectual qualities. The white and black athletes receive unequal distribution of positive and negative comments. The black athletes receive negative comments on their character. The stereotyping practices have continued over the years with the recent racial profillingincidences occurring in college sports (Carvalho, 2014). George Cunningham from Texas analyzed the released reports on hired new coaches to work in the assistant positions. George found that white coaches were described as abled strategists, while black coaches became noted for their skills during recruitment and ways of relating with other players. The finding is that black coaches face difficulties acquiring jobs in coaching because they face stereotyping experiences. The media explains that hiring a minority coach is similar to handling asylum to the inmates. David Shaw, Kevin Sumlin, and Mike Tomlin face discrimination inform of whispers indicating that their success in coaching comes from their talented quarters, Johnny Manziel.
The paper will use content analysis method to analyze media forums on black athletes as discussed by present American president, Donald Trump. Content analysis helps researchers to identify, enumerate, and analyze different times specific actions have taken place. A qualitative textual analysis will enhance conduct of the research because it will help describe and interpreted messages given by leaders through analyzing their speeches. A qualitative analysis of content is carried out when researchers have special interests in the meanings of messages in texts. Researchers select texts, determines coding units, develop required categories, trains observers how to take data and analyzes gathered information.
The paper will give answers to questions on the extent of racial discrimination among black athletes in American society, and how media responses and remarks by leaders support or minimize the oppression. The qualitative content analysis method began by identifying various articles in the media discussing racial discrimination among black athletes in American society. The method-analyzed media content related to Obama speech and remarks towards black athletes. Purposeful sampling procedure was applicable to single out articles related to Donald Trump and his comment on black athletes. The cases display Donald Trump publicly and privately attacking black athletes on twitter and online media platforms.
Procedure: A purposeful sampling of 10 articles from hundreds of speeches given by Donald Trump referring black athletes. The research process randomly selected 10 articles from the media, and careful analyses of each.
The process of data analysis involved carefully understanding the articles and coming up with emerging themes. Qualitative analysis of data involves describing the procedures, decision criteria, and manipulation of data to get results in a study.
The chosen materials were read and speeches listened to from various leaders and black athletes. The obtained information was scrutinized to eliminate redundant ideas and understand the experience of black athletes. The researchers checked for inconsistencies with the data to retain its wholeness. The information was sourced from sampling articles from media platforms including the Word press, Huffington post, New York magazine, vice sports, U.S news, Economic policy institute, National academy of sciences, and various published journals discussing racial discrimination against black athletes in America. Ten articles were singled out and analysed.
Bracketing the data
The data obtained is analyzed using the questions of the study. There was no discrimination of the data obtained because all sourced text was analyzed with similar weight.
The data was carefully eliminated if repetitive, overlapping, and repetitive data. Eliminating nonessential material makes it easy for researchers to read and analyze the text with ease.
Each obtained information was grouped depending on the arising theme. Each cluster contained similar themes for comparison and formation of categories.
The categories formed with similar ideas and phrases helped form a major theme for the study. The following step is to place the themes into categories.
Description of themes
The themes are described to ensure they answer the research question and ensure they make sense in the situation at hand. The analysis concentrates on describing the experiences of black athletes in the middle of white athletes and presence of Trump the American president. The accurate analysis helps describe the data in a clear manner. The large data gathered requires careful description to ensure that all ideas are captured and balanced to explain the experience of black athletes.
The information is reliable because it was obtained from speeches made by Donald Trump whose sources are available over the internet. The experiences of athletes are recorded in the fields and posted in the media platforms for all people to view and listen. Thus, the information given is reliable. The messages remain valid because they are sourced between 2016 and 2018 when Donald Trump became the president.
Accurate analysis of data, helped obtain eight themes from 10 articles dealing with racial discrimination among black citizens. Themes included ascription of intelligence, assumed superiority of white cultural values/Communication style,exortism of black athletes, second class citizens, assumed universality, denial of individual racism,coping,underdeveloped incidences.
|Emergent themes||Number of participants|
|Ascription of intelligence||8|
|Assumed Superiority of white cultural values/communication style||8|
|Exoticism of black athletes||7|
|Second class citizens||6|
|Denial of individual racism||5|
Analysis of themes
The results indicate that most black athletes are viewed as having low intelligent quotient while in the field and outside with other people. The whites are regarded as bright and having enough knowledge to top in the field and win awards. A majority of black athletes have poor style of communication making it too difficult to pass over their requests. The white on the other hand have good communication styles because they speak English fluently compared to ethnic minority groups whose English is their second language. President Donald Trump is a great player in racial discrimination referring black athletes as sons of a birth. The remarks sent a message to the citizens that African-American athletes are second class citizens and do not deserve any good from the nation.
The statements deny the Black athletes their rightful identity as African-American dignified people. The society views them as lacking and disqualified to excel. The remarks contribute negatively to their participation in games because they find it hard to cope and compete in a healthy manner with the white age groups. The black athletes have a difficult life attempting to create awareness that they have their rights and deserve respect and protection by law enforcers such as the police. The last theme observed during the study was underdeveloped incidences. The blacks are regarded as underprivileged and lackingfinancial, emotional, and social support from concerned groups. They are perceived to live in great poverty and struggle to live. College athletes receive remarks that they depend on sports to earn a living and support their education.
Supporting examples of black athletes facing racial discrimination in the United States
Racism acts in 2016 tripled from 11 in 2015 to 31 in 2016. Pop Warner an athlete influenced Rodney Axson to kneel when the national anthem was ongoing to show their frustration from oppression towards them committed by the police in 2016, there were more than 963 blacks killed by the police. In July 2016, Carmelo Anthony, Dwyane Wade, LeBron James, and Chris Paul issued powerful messages about violent attacks by police using gun towards people of color (Lapchick, 2017). The messages reflected deaths of black men Philando Castle and Alton Sterling. College athletics are commonly affected by the police violent attacks. Athletes from Columbia University participating in wrestling received a suspension because of sending lustful text messages. The messages concentrated on topics such as misogyny, racism and used homophobic language.
Amherst College suspended the men’s team involved in cross-country because of sending lewd text messages. According to Amherst College director, Don Maulstick, the college athlete’s messages encouraged violation of zero-tolerance standards set for bigotry kind. Black athletes face discrimination even in housing sector where they are not required to use various rooms if they belong to various kind of gender than one on their birth certificate (Lap chick, 2017). The players in the NBA team had to relocate their stay in All-Star Weekend expected to occur in Charlotte, North Carolina because the civil rights law was violated against the way North Carolina Bill 2 set it. The bill prevented ethnic minority groups to use the restrooms.The team explained that the core values of the team have to be respected.
They should not be diverted but should be received with fairness, and respect. The athletes demanded a hearing and consideration of their viewpoints. In the NFL,the home of Nikita Whitlock was robbed and destroyed by people believed to be racial epithets such as Swastika who painted the walls with letters ‘KKK’,and messages such as ‘Go back to Africa’. The other wall was painted ‘Trump’ the similar week. Denver Broncos joined Kaepernick to protest against the national anthem in America because of receiving a hurting email that included slurs related to race and threats of his life. The media spotted unruly fans in the headlines in 2016 at a sporting event. Team members become offensive towards fellow black athletes through singing songs that display banners with offensive language in the stadium. The behavior is hurting and leads to fights among fans. Example Croatian fans fought as the UEFA games continued because of offensive banners (Lap chick, 2017). White players hail insults to black participants such as Paul Gascoigne who received a $1000 fine for issuing a comment based on race to a security guard during an event.
Didier Descamps coach was allegedly accused of excluding Karim Benzema and Hatem Ben Arfa from a national team in France because they had roots from North Africa. The national team based in France has recorded acts of ethnic integration, which raises many questions on racism attempts in the team. Racism acts continue spreading on social media such as Facebook and emails, whereby more than 5500 people post racist comments. Athletic Bilboa’s Inaki Williams received taunts from fans who sang racist songs and sent abusive chats during the opening of La Liga on weekend (Lap chick, 2017). William has a history of becoming the best player in athletics, which contributed to his supporters silencing the crowd and use of PA systems to remind the mob that they will not tolerate forms of racism among them. Black athletes face descriptions such as intellectually inferior based on their race.
Most black athletes outlined their encounters with whites who stated they were inarticulate. Most college blacks participating in athletes reported facing various hurting questions from their professors, coaches, teammates and the campus related to their race. The black male and female participants hurled negative statements to victimize them and intimidate their participation in the game. The white athletes are perceived to have perfect cultures, while blacks are displayed as being naïve and depending on the wise whites for support. Most articles reported black athletes referred as backward and not having proper communication styles. They were referred as inferior before their white athletes (Lap chick, 2017). The 2018 Winter Olympics ocuring in Pyeongchang, South Korea has experienced various attacks from Donald Trump. An African-American, Elana Meyers Taylor participates in Olympics and expresses her distress towards racial profiling from Donald Trump. Meyers explains that Trump has to support sports from all tried to ensure that the young generation learns from them, as they are the role models.
Trump hails insults such as ‘shithole countries’, to African-American athletes. Athletes such as Akwasi Frimpong, Akuoma Omeoga, Seun Adigun, and Ngozi Onwumere from Africa express their anger towards Trump who hails insults to black athletes referring him as a racist. Four players Seimone Augustus, Maya Moore, rebekkah Brunson, Lindsay Whalen conducted a press conference dressed in T-shirts explaining that change begins in the United States. The group of four-basketball team from Minnesota Lynx in 2016 demanded justice and accountability (Lap chick, 2017). The backside of the T-shirts had names of Philander Castile and Alton Sterling, African-American men who received gunshots from police officers. The Dallas Police Department had lost five of its officers to gunshots because of gun violence. The group requested to know whether black lives matter.
Women from the National basketball Association had their T-shirts painted that Black lives matter while conducting warmups in honor of Sterling and Castile. The players from Phoenix mercury followed to honor the deaths of black athletes.
The media platform has been a good ground for potential people who manage to pay airtime, to support the white athletes and demoralized as well as victimizing the black athletes. The broadcaster concentrates to announce positive remarks from leaders and other stakeholders. The major focus among white athletes is their abilities, commitment, and hard work. The white athletes receive recognition based on their work ethic and effort. They are considered intelligent in the games sector (Calvert, 2012). During winter Olympics in 2002, Eastman and Billings were regarded as successful players because of their drive and commitment to sports. The news broadcast mentions more than two-thirds whites during prime time. The numbers of white athletes allowed to compete outnumbers black athletes.
The black athletes are characterized by their innate ability in athletics.however, Billings and Angelini discovered that black athletes had special ability that ensures they are powerful, quick, and natural athletics. Black athletes do not require much dedication and passion. The backgrounds of black grounds are focused upon more than the roots of white athletes. The media refers them as unable, disadvantaged, and segregated minority group who have no chance of succeeding in their lives through sports (Boykoff, 2018). The media representation of black athletes in the United States affects how the society views the black community living in America. Greater exposure to aspects of racial discrimination against the black minorities encourages other people to practice discriminative acts to minority ethnic groups in America. The society develops a negative position and belief towards the ability of the black community. A larger group of people especially the middle-aged population studies more than 80% of articles in the print media. The articles describe white athlete as hard workers and talented people with great abilities to win athletic games all the time. The blacks are viewed as weak and disadvantaged players who lack the ability to win any game in athletics. The media portrays black athletes as coming from poor facilities and education. Most are shown coming from single parent families and lacking enough support from their parents (Boykoff, 2018). The media is expected to be informative to the whole society through positive remarks to people performing hard and contributing to the nation’s economy. However, the media has become the place of racial profiling especially to the minority groups. The media portrays the black athletes as weak, not talented, and lacking skills to perform various actions. However, the opposite is true because black athletes in America demonstrate their talented ability to run and work hard in their athletic games.
The negative approach of the media has resulted in the society at large hurling insults to black athletes and calling them names associated to their race without respect. The resulting behavior is protest of athletes during the national anthem and failure to participate in national games that will earn the country medals. The ones interested in games use the social media platforms such as Facebook to spread hatred towards certain black athletes. They use vulgar language to comment on failures and weaknesses of various athletes and comment positively to their white athletes. The worst situation is when the political leaders involve in insulting and mistreating the black athletes because of devaluing them (Boykoff, 2018). The United States president Donald Trump hurls insults and demands firing of black athletes who refuse to stand while singing the national anthem.
The racial profiling acts end in activism, protest, and deaths. Stars belonging to the National Basketball Association such as Carmelo Anthony, Chris Paul, and Dwyane Wade among others at ESPY awards encouraged their counterparts to participate in acts of social activism. Colin Kaepernick shows the society how to respond to racial discrimination through kneeling during the national anthem. Kaepernick was against racial inequality and encounters of police brutality evidenced from his young age against black athletes. The society learns that acts of discrimination must face protests by going against the law. The president makes hurtful remarks to black athletes referring them as ‘son of a bitch’. The effect is a major trigger to all players who knelt and linked their arms with the team owners who sympathized with the situation (Boykoff, 2018). Gibson and Wima Rudolph who won a gold medal at the Olympic Games, advocates for equal treatment among black athletes. Rudolph issued a direction vocally stating that collective protests against the political nature of the country fit to fight inequality and seek to empower the black athletes. Black athletes face great struggle in their search for change and central role.
The study concludes that racial discrimination against white athletes will stay for long time because of the negative portrayal of the black athletes in the media such as television broadcasts and printed media. Broadcasting channels strengthen the notion that racial stereotyping among the black athletes is common and has affected the society in general. The black athletes get references according to their color and background information.
The media platforms in the nation have a better position to stop racial discrimination through controlling what is broadcasted on broadcast and print media. The country advisers must focus on advising political leaders to avoid giving speeches that negatively affect the thinking of the people in the nation because it leads to fights and arrests.
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