Theoretical foundations of organizational change

Theoretical foundations of organizational change

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Factors that contribute to the organic evolution of change

Various factors contribute to the organic evolution of change. One of the external factors is the move by competitors (Rizescu & Tileaga, 2016). Competitors contribute to the evolution of change by introducing new products in the market, amplifying new products or services, providing discounts for their products, or improving the services they are offering to their customers. Such moves require an organization to respond by embracing change (Rizescu & Tileaga, 2016). Second, technological advancement contributes to the evolution of change. These changes bring the rapid resolution of complications in management or production. Organizations have to be adaptive to reduce their costs and improve quality through these changes. Third, policies contribute to the evolution of change (Rizescu & Tileaga, 2016). For example, corporate social responsibility policies require organizations to be more responsible. These are emerging trends in the marketplace. Other internal factors such as interpersonal relationships, leadership styles, and decision-making processes also contribute to the evolution of change.

How to Formulate Strategic Development Approaches

Formulating strategic development approaches involves four stages. First is the input stage. This stage involves the analysis and diagnosis of the external environment. In this stage, strategists develop; external factor evaluation matrix (Torlak & Sanal, 2007). This evaluates political, technological, governmental, economic, social, cultural, social, competitive and demographic information. Strategists then develop an internal factor evaluation matrix. This involves the strengths and weaknesses of the organization’s functional areas. Then, a competitive profile matrix is developed (Torlak & Sanal, 2007). This identifies major competitors of an organization and their strengths and weaknesses about the strategic position of a sample organization.

Second is the matching stage. In this stage, strategists focus on generating viable alternative strategies. This is done by aligning key internal factors with external factors. Five techniques including the SWOT matrix, the IE matrix, the BCG matrix, the Grand strategy, and the SPACE matrix can be used in this state in any order (Torlak & Sanal, 2007). Matching internal and external critical success factors play an important role in generating viable alternative strategies.

 The last stage is the decision stage. It involves the quantitative strategic planning matrix (QSPM) that uses input information from the first stage to evaluate viable alternatives identified in the second stage (Torlak & Sanal, 2007). This technique reveals the relative attraction of identified alternatives providing a foundation for choosing a specific strategy (Djordjevic, 2014). Through the technique, managers can objectively evaluate alternative strategies based on a swot analysis (Torlak & Sanal, 2007).  QSPM calculates weights, scores of attractiveness, total scores of attractiveness, and the sum total of scores of the attractiveness of the identified alternative strategies. Based on the results, strategists can select the most appropriate strategy for an organization.

How to identify models and interventions of change leadership

Various change leadership models and interventions have been developed. But, there is no right model.Various factors can be used in identifying the right models and interventions of change leadership including the kind of change that an organization is implementing, organizational culture, and involved personalities (SHRM, 2015). For example, when organizational groups are involved, the use of Kotter’s change leadership model may be appropriate.  The model is most fit when leaders are looking for buy-ins from a group or groups in an organization (SHRM, 2015). This model starts by identifying change barriers. Such barriers may include lack of a powerful leadership team, failure to communicate change vision effectively, lack of short-term success, and failure to anchor changes in organizational culture.

The model arms leaders with an awareness of potential pitfalls during change implementation. With this information, leaders know what to avoid. The model offers a communication strategy through which leaders can minimize change resistance or hostility from institutional groups. The model then outlines stages through which leaders can implement change effectively. If leaders are targeting individuals, a different model is required. For example, the ADKAR model can be more effective (SHRM, 2015). Through this model, leaders can help individual employees see and embrace change and their role to help implement that change. The model involves creating awareness for change at the individual level, creating a desire to support change, sharing knowledge about change, promoting the ability to implement change, and reward change efforts (SHRM, 2015).

If leaders are largely involved in change implementation and must act as change agents, a different model is required. For example, the Bacharach change leadership model can be more effective in this situation. Under this model, leaders are required to guide organizational change by developing agenda, mapping political terrain, getting people on the change side, and making things happen (SHRM, 2015).  The model empowers leaders with effective tools for guiding change in an organic approach.

Change models that facilitate organizational adaptation while maintaining a high level of follower commitment

Various change models have been developed for change management. But, not all of these models facilitate organizational adaptation while maintaining a high level of follower commitment. Those models that facilitate the adaptation while maintaining commitment include; the 8-step change model by Kotter (SHRM, 2015). This model uses the experiences of employees to reduce potential resistance. This facilitates adaptation while enhancing employee commitment.

Second is the ADKAR model. This model focuses on influencing employees to embrace change at an individual level facilitation adaptation and at the same time improving individual commitment (SHRM, 2015). The third is the Bridges Transition model. The model focuses on influencing people to let go of old ways of doing things and accepting new ways. The model is effective in facilitating organizational adaptation and improving employee commitment to change management. While these models are effective in facilitating adaptation and enhancing commitment, they may not be effective in all situations (SHRM, 2015). Change managers have to choose the most appropriate model depending on their situation.

Leadership and management skills necessary to implement continuous change models

Four leadership and management skills are necessary to implement continuous change models. First is idealized influence. This skill involves leaders and management behaving in admirable ways influencing followers to identify with them (Marks, 2007). The leaders have clear values that they demonstrate in all their actions. They serve as role models to their followers. This helps in building genuine trust between leaders and managers, and followers (Fünfgeld et al., 2014).

The second skill is the ability to inspire and motivate followers. Leaders are expected to behave in a manner that motivates and inspires all those involved in change implementation. Such behaviors include showing optimism and enthusiasm, stimulating collaboration, motivating employees, and sharing positive results. The third skill is the ability to stimulate innovation and creativity. This includes the ability to stimulate change by getting new ideas from followers. The fourth skill is the ability to give individual attention (Das, 2012). This involves coaching and mentoring followers for individual growth and development.  Through these skills, leaders and change managers can effectively implement continuous change models.

Due to uncertainty in the economic world, organizations have to be adaptive. One of the approaches to being adaptive is building a learning culture. Leaders work together with management by paying enough attention to organizational culture and individual skills to develop and share a vision (Seah et al., 2014). The two parties work together to ensure that organizational culture and their assumption are embedded in the learning concept facilitating the adaptation process.

How to gather and analyze data to determine the most efficacious timing of the change.

Timing plays a major role when it comes to change. Regardless of how effective change seems on a paper, it must be accepted by employees and by every other stakeholder (SHRM, 2015). Any organizational change disrupts organizational workflow. To minimize the disruption and maximize success, timing is critical. The right time to implement change is when the organization can handle it. If the organization cannot handle the proposed change at this time, then more planning is needed (SHRM, 2015). The other factor to consider is whether employees are ready for the change. Employees should be prepared to implement it without resistance. They should be motivated and supportive of the change. It is also important to determine the level of change required (SHRM, 2015). In short, to gain initial buy-in, timing is critical. With the right timing, momentum is built to get everyone excited about the new idea.

Through data gathering and analysis, leaders can determine the right timing of change (SHRM, 2015). An in-depth data gathering should be conducted. Data should be collected from various sources including all stakeholders. HR professionals serve as a good source of organization-wide data on the current state of an organization. Employees’ surveys can also help in gathering data for assessing the current state of an organization (SHRM, 2015). Facilitation techniques can help determine if the proposed change is realistic of actionable. It is also important to collect data on current capabilities, available resources, and gaps. All of this can be collected from HR professionals through interviews or questionnaires (SHRM, 2015). After gathering this data, change managers should then analyze it through available data analysis software for a clear, accurate, and comprehensive snapshot of the organization’s current state (Burnes, 2004). With this information, change managers will determine the most effective timing of the change.


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SHRM (2015). Leading Effective Change: A Primer for the HR Professional. SHRM    Foundation, 1-36.

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