The Effects And Signs Of Cigarette Smoking In Adults

The Effects And Signs Of Cigarette Smoking In Adults

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Introduction

In the recent society we have seen or heard many people smoking and hence they really fore-warned about the effects of smoking on their health. Perhaps we may not understand what they get from it but due to the research carried out and evidences imposed we will clearly defend that cigarette smoking is still harmful to the health of the smoker and the public at large. The recent evidence has clearly shown that active and passive are associated through a dose dependent manner with the dysfunction of the normal endothelium physiology. In addition to this, Tobacco smoke has predispose individuals to atherogenic and thrombotic thrombotic problems in their health (Nociti, 2002)

The Cellular levels of Cigarette

Cigarette smoking has claimed many lives which perhaps we could have been there if smoking was avoided by the death victims (Chalmers,2002) The tobacco smoke that we see is very dangerous since it contains very levels of superoxide and other reactive oxygen species such as the hydrogen peroxide which is highly dangerous, the hydroxyl radical and probably the peroxynitrite. The components of this smoke is generally derived from the combustion of the cigar and has a vascular adverse effects on the smoker due to the endothelium cell exposure .The damage of cell occurs as a result of the above reactive oxygen species which induces alteration of the macromolecules. This include the protein oxidation, the DNA strand effect, polyunsaturated fatty acids in the membrane lids. Therefore, the reactive oxygen species that comes as a result of combustion of smoke will automatically induce the cellular inflammatory responses and oxidative damage to the cells hence leading to the malfunction and even the death of cells (Sopori, 2002).

Pathophysiology

In the human blood there are BBB endothelium cells that is able to maintain brain balance of the homeostasis. This the most endogenous substance that selectively prevents some substances from getting to the brain cell that will damage the cells. The disorder or the dysfunction of the cells may lead to the induction of neurological disorders such as stroke, multiple sclerosis, dementia, and epilepsies (Cesor-Neto, 2003). Any disorder affecting the BBB functions may have secondary effects on the cerebral blood flow and vascular tone thereby affecting the transport system across the micro vascular endothelium. Moreover, cigar smoking has led to cerebrovascular vasodilation through the sympathetic activation of the cells. The Trans-endothelium leucocyte migrations across the blood is also altered by the BBB cells. Hence the presence of these cells to the brain will automatically lead to trauma and other neurodegenerative diseases.

Relation to atherosclerosis

This is a condition brought about by the clogging in the inside of the arteries. The arteries are the part way for the transportation of substances from one place to another, especially the blood that carries the oxygen. Due to the content in the smoke from the cigarette these arteries will automatically be blocked and hence leading to atherosclerosis. This condition has greatly lead to death due to lack of essential transport system in the body thereby may lead to suffocation and probably oxygen related diseases. In summary the harmful effects of smoking on the adults have been well demonstrated the underlying mechanism of the toxicity through the current deaths of people in the society. The research has shown that one out of the ten disorder is as a result of cigarette (Pope, 2009).

Work cited

César-Neto, J. B., Duarte, P. M., Sallum, E. A., Barbieri, D., Moreno Jr, H., & Nociti Jr, F. H. (2003). A comparative study on the effect of nicotine administration and cigarette smoke inhalation on bone healing around titanium implants. Journal of periodontology, 74(10), 1454-1459.

Chalmers, G. W., Macleod, K. J., Little, S. A., Thomson, L. J., McSharry, C. P., & Thomson, N. C. (2002). Influence of cigarette smoking on inhaled corticosteroid treatment in mild asthma. Thorax, 57(3), 226-230.

Nociti Jr, F. H., Neto, J. B. C., Carvalho, M. D., & Sallum, E. A. (2002). Bone density around titanium implants may be influenced by intermittent cigarette smoke inhalation: a histometric study in rats. Influência da Inalação da Fumaça de Cigarro e Sua Interrupção Sobre o Periodonto e o Tecido Ósseo ao Redor de Implantes de Titânio. Estudo em Ratos., 11.

Pope, C. A., Burnett, R. T., Krewski, D., Jerrett, M., Shi, Y., Calle, E. E., & Thun, M. J. (2009). Cardiovascular mortality and exposure to airborne fine particulate matter and cigarette smoke. Circulation, 120(11), 941-948.

Sopori, M. (2002). Effects of cigarette smoke on the immune system. Nature Reviews Immunology, 2(5), 372-377.

Van der Vaart, H., Postma, D. S., Timens, W., & Ten Hacken, N. H. T. (2004). Acute effects of cigarette smoke on inflammation and oxidative stress: a review. Thorax, 59(8), 713-721.