Students Name

October 19, 2017

Unit Name and Code


At no point can people achieve their goals without cooperating with others and often time this involves negotiation. By this definition, negotiation is the process whereby two parties communicate back and forth so as to reach a common agreement with regards to specific ideas and needs (Hofstede et al., 2012). Negotiation is an art where persuasion is used rather than power. The first thing to note is that negotiation is not a one-time transaction on the contrary negotiation is multistep process and is much complicated on the global context because of cultural interactions.

Negotiation can take a wide variety of steps, therefore there are no predefined steps to negotiating, according to Deresky (2013, pg. 145) the four stages of the negotiation process involves preparation, consideration of the tasks at hand, general principles, and the quantity of influential people present. On the other hand, other authors list preparation, information exchange, validation, bargain, conclusion as well as execution (Adair et al., 2013). It’s important to otherwise note that all of these steps are equally important and differ because of differing management styles and cultures but the bottom line is that both parties should be able to sign off a deal, it’s a give and take situation and the objective is primarily to forge a win-win agreement.

There are innumerable negotiation styles, that are strongly influences by contemporary theoretical milieu but negotiation styles are in most cases categorized under accommodating, avoiding, collaborating, competing and compromising that are in most cases based the outcomes which may include integrative and distributive features of the agreement(Hofstede et al., 2012). In sum, regardless of the approach, negotiation strategies are highly contingent and thereby vary as per the situation in hand. Effective communication is key to successful interaction and communication. What would happen if negotiation fails to reach the desired goal? Of course, there is need to change and thus there is no fit it all style for negotiation.

Response One

Indeed, negotiation can be looked at from lenses of cross cultural management especially if the same is from a global perspective. While negotiation can be looked at as a science, i feel that limiting oneself to following predefined rules cannot always give the best results. As argued above, negotiation is highly contingent, and there is therefore need to gauge the situation that may not necessarily follow predefined rules. Different authors present varying stages to negotiation therefore there isn’t a one fit it all response to stages involved in negotiation process. Much as all the stages mentioned above are important, it’s important to note that communication is fundamental to having successful results (Engle et al., 2013).

Response Two

An escalating and globalized business world means that international negotiations are inevitable in an organizational context. Negotiating from a cultural perspective presents a wide range of challenges. To succeed in global business it’s important to understand the multicultural context that shapes the organization (Hofstede et al., 2012). For example it may be much easier to negotiate with people from the same culture compared to those of disparate cultural values, traditions, beliefs and attitudes. In retrospect, skillful negotiators should be culturally intelligent and sensitivity to be effective. The academic sphere of business negotiation has mixed viewpoints towards the relationship between culture and the behavior of negotiation but the bottom line perspective is that successful negotiations are underlined  in understanding cultural variability’s and  matching the negotiation style with the situation(Adair et al., 2013).


Adair, W. L., Taylor, M., Chu, J., Ethier, N., Xiong, T., Okumura, T., & Brett, J. (2013). Effective Influence in Negotiation. International Studies Of Management & Organization43(4), 6-25. doi:10.2753/IMO0020-8825430401  URL: “”&HYPERLINK “”db=bthHYPERLINK “”&HYPERLINK “”AN=93255245HYPERLINK “”&HYPERLINK “”site=ehost-liveHYPERLINK “”&HYPERLINK “”scope=site

Engle, R. L., Elahee, M. N., & Tatoglu, E. (2013). Antecedents of problem-solving cross-cultural negotiation style: Some preliminary evidence. Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship, 18(2), 83-102. Retrieved from

Hofstede, G. J., Jonker, C. M., & Verwaart, T. (2012). Cultural differentiation of negotiating agents. Group Decision and Negotiation, 21(1), 79-98. doi:  URL: “″&HYPERLINK “″accountid=8289