Pathophysiological processes involved with cell injury

Pathophysiological processes involved with cell injury





‘’The Heart Muscles died.’’

It is also known as heart attack or Myocardial infarction. It’s the death of a section of the heart muscles most concurrently due to the supply of the blood to the heart walls. Therefore, with the absence of enough blood supply, the muscles of the heart are deprived of the enough oxygen and nutrients, and instead the waste products manufactured from the cells accumulate in the tissue muscles located in the heart. Therefore, it may result in damaging of the cells known as myocardial ischemia and then perhaps the death of the cells known as myocardial infarction (Zhao, Corvera, Halkos, Kerendi, Wang, Guyton & Vinten-Johansen, 2003). The problem occurs when there are cardiac demands especially during physical activities or stress, and the narrow coronary arteries cannot provide enough supply of blood for the heart muscles to sustain it with the increases activities. Moreover, the situation occurs randomly unless there is an acute severe blood loss leading to a shortage. The cell dies when it ceases to function beyond repairs, and the only solution would perhaps be replacement (Smadja, Gaussem, Mauge, Israël-Biet, Dignat-George, Peyrard & Lévy, 2009).

Reversible and non-reversible cell injury

The reversible cell injury occurs when the cell damages or ischemia happens for short time then returns to normal. However, this depends on the type of cell that has undergone the damage.  For examples cells swellings, the detachment of the ribosomes and the fatty composition seen around the cell are the most common occurrences (Farkas, Lifshitz & Povlishock, 2006).  The recovery to normal depends on the relaxation of the injuries and the stressors. On the other hand, irreversible cell injuries occur when the injury stimuli persist and become severe enough making the cells to pass the point of no recovery. In this case, the stimuli and the stressor continue and hence leading to a permanent damaging of the cell without any remedies to be taken for the cell, for example, the swell of mitochondria. The cell injury is a process at which some of the cells which were working is typically affected by various activities from either inside or outside of the body. Some of the injuries are caused by strenuous activities hence causing serious damage to the cells. On the other hand, some of the injuries are caused by internal injuries such as dislocation of some arteries or internal clotting of the blood from a bleeding wound.

The analysis of Mr. Smith diagnosis of the problem indicates that he underwent a nonreversible cell injury. Due to the heavy lifting of the load, Mr. Smith experienced a shortage of oxygen which led to cardiac demands for the oxygen. The cells were deprived of enough oxygen and nutrients to supply to the rest of the body. The heart could not pump enough of the required oxygen and nutrients to the cells and tissues. Moreover, the obstruction of the coronary artery led to the insufficient supply of blood to the heart and other parts of the body (Dighton, 2009). These indicate that he had an injury that led to internal bleeding which then clotted and blocked the path, especially in the coronary artery. The situation of the injury stimuli persisted hence causing damage to some of the cells and tissues. After experiencing a sharp pain in his chest and sweating which is an indication of a miscommunication factor and a damaged cell or tissues, he was unable to perform more tasks, but his body becomes dumb. Mr. Smith is told that is told that some of the heart muscles are dead (Doka, 2014).


Dighton, D. H. (2009). Sinoatrial block. Autonomic influences and clinical assessment. British heart journal, 37(3), 321-325.

Doka, K. J. (2014). Living with grief: After sudden loss suicide, homicide, accident, heart attack, stroke. Taylor & Francis.

Farkas, O., Lifshitz, J., & Povlishock, J. T. (2006). Mechanoporation induced by diffuse traumatic brain injury: an irreversible or reversible response to injury?. Journal of Neuroscience, 26(12), 3130-3140.

Smadja, D. M., Gaussem, P., Mauge, L., Israël-Biet, D., Dignat-George, F., Peyrard, S., … & Lévy, M. (2009). Circulating Endothelial Cells. Circulation, 119(3), 374-381.

Zhao, Z. Q., Corvera, J. S., Halkos, M. E., Kerendi, F., Wang, N. P., Guyton, R. A., & Vinten-Johansen, J. (2003). Inhibition of myocardial injury by ischemic post-conditioning during reperfusion: comparison with ischemic preconditioning. American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology.